Healthcare’s ‘toxic’ working conditions exposed in student’s documentary, Morocco on high Covid-19 alert as football continues, South African universities need to know why students’ suicide risk is so high. Poverty is a problem for many African countries, and it will be one â¦ In the 1900s, “traditional African religions still claimed the loyalty of majority of the population of sub-Saharan Africa”. From the early colonial period till today, misinformation about African indigenous spiritualities is spread and believed as truth. For this reason, the disciples of Taylor conclude that African religion is said to be polytheistic, meaning that Africans serve several gods which further puts African religion at the bottom of religious evolution. This kind of contention strikes off the fact that Africans did not have religious belief and knowledge in God before arrival of European missionaries (Johnson, 2004). Proof of this is in the ritual killings that keep on happening in this modern age whether it is 100 graves dug up in Benin Republic or albinos being killed for their body parts in Tanzania. However, the words used in ATR reference were not true because Africans were already aware of religion and believed in the Supreme Being. The rationale is to designate African traditional religion as inferior to Islam and Christianity. That is why we have freewill, and regardless of whether we choose to acknowledge that a living God exists or not, and regardless of how we choose to worship Him, directly or through deities, we will all be eventually accountable. It creates an atmosphere of fear, uncertainty and general suspicion. Whether it is being wrongly labelled voodoo, juju or witchcraft, indigenous African faith systems tend to be associated with darkness, animal and human sacrifices, violence and general backwardness. Instead, myths are embedded and transmitted in ritual practice. Unlike Western mythology, African myths are not recounted as a single narrative story, nor is there any established corpus of myth. The Economy, Monetary Policy, and Monopolies, “Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment”, “Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers”, “Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohlâs”, Sample Sociology Paper on Saving Capitalism, Criminal Justice: Sample Essay on Why Children Join Gangs, Religious Studies on Contribution of Christianity to Western civilization, Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment, Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers, Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohlâs. Sometimes misrepresentation lack understanding of traditional African religious practices a fact that made the historians and scholars to record misleading details on ATR thus, leading to growth of religious inaccuracies. This explains further why Africans in slavery maintained their traditional religious practices. In his own bid to modernise the faith, Akpochihala launched a crash course that allows Voudou devotees to become priests in four months, as opposed to the usual three years. African religions - African religions - Mythology: In African oral cultures, myths embody philosophical reflections, express values, and identify moral standards. Voodoo Practitioners Make A Pact With The Devil. A 1685 law, for instance, prohibited the practice of African religions, and required all masters to Christianize their slaves within eight days of their arrival in Haiti. Even though Westerners revealed the idea that ATRs operated at a personal level, the society created focal ATRs beliefs and practices. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. The theory of Taylor further regarded the African religion as quite primitive because ATR faithful believe in presence of spirits in every object. Will keep in touch with more assignments, this is Tom again, just wonna say thank you for assistance. Their belief in many spirits as revealed by their belief in spirits existence in every object in every object as a result hurls Africans to an abyss of holy aboriginality. Headquartered in Menomonee Falls, WI, the chain has over 1,160 stores in 49 states across the US. With religion being the sensitive topic that it is, one close to the hearts of many African people, it is not always easy to have a sensible discussion about the problematic ways in which Eurocentric Christianity and Islam reached the African continent. In many of the African spiritual traditions it is believed that there is one âGodâ. It is often combined with elements of Christianity and Islam. In this regard therefore, Africans worshipping piece of wood will not in any case despair if the wood gets lost based on the fact that wood is just a beingâs representation and is served as a solid personification of goddess that is represented in its presence (Awolalu, 1976, p. 8). I couldn’t help but compare his very modern and professional service to the recurring stereotype of wild-eyed witch doctors providing consultations in a darkened room that is popular in Nollywood and even Western depictions of any African spiritual system. This policy aids clients to access products cheaply and in the correct quantity. African Traditional Religion is referred to the diverse beliefs that are included in various ethnic regions in Africa.The religion is characterized mainly by: 1.Supreme Being The African societies and ethnic communities believed in a supreme being who had different names for different communities.The people worshiped this God through singing,offering sacrifices,dancing,dedications â¦ The animal that Africans worshipped according to Taylor had the ability of leaving one body and taking over other bodies such as men and things. Retrieved from http://organizations.uncfsu.edu/ncrsa/journal/v04/johnson_understanding.htm. The cultural ATRs embodiment further discusses the difficulty in adoption of ATR by people in Europe and America because of the most significant beliefs and ideas inATR are alien in regards to their geographical and alien environs. Mudimbe's Theories on Missionary Discourse in Africa]. Africa is ridden with Disease. But to say that the African Traditional Religion is animistic would be incorrect and racial. Earlier researchers and missionaries portrayed them often as primitive and barbaric and ridiculed them [I give many examples in my book: White Fathers in Colonial Central Africa - a Critical Examination of V.Y. It is erroneous to assume that it is after Africans migrate to the Diaspora that they â¦ Will reach you with more assignments, Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis III. People often refer to âAfricaâ as if it is a country rather than a continent. This conception followed the same path that claimed that all ATRs are the same. Conflict is a universal phenomenon that is inevitable in human interaction. Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than âvoodooâ) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African â¦ (vii) Idolatry: Idol means false god; and so idolatry is the worshipping of false gods or that which is not real. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. It was not enough to insist that every form of worship in Africa was of the devil, this was tied to African cultures as a way to reinforce the notion that Africans and African civilisations were lesser when compared to that of Europeans. Looking for the very best because it looks perfect, will be back with more assignments, you helped me complete several other tasks as you handled paper. In considering traditional sub-Saharan African religious systems for study, one is confronted not only by the multiplicity of potential Homosexuality, incest, and bestiality are inherently taboo for those following the Christian Bible . Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic, and traditional medicine. 1. Take Ghanaian priest and healer Kwaku Bonsam, for instance, the focus of this New York Times article. I feared penalty from professor, but am now safe, Religion and expression of faith in the work place, Have been ordering from as many people online but never gotten A in my career, thanks for your assistance, Your write was fast on the assignment and will now be able to beat deadline. In essence, these were mainly western scholarâs constructs as a derogatory reference to ATR as a representation of the peopleâs cultural backwardness. Christianity must recognise and study the theological basis of the traditional African belief in the existence of mystical and mysterious forces. Get a non-plagiarized Paper written by our Professionals. Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than “voodoo”) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African faith systems believe in the concept of one God above all other divinities and deities, who function much as a pantheon of saints. What exactly are rituals? What population is affected by the problem? Premium Essay Writing Services is the ideal place for homework help or essay writing service. Studies in Comparative Religion, 10(2), Johnson, K. (2004). To get around these restrictions, the slaves started to equate their gods with Catholic saints. From Nigeria to Kenya, it is disturbing how we have come to accept the intolerant Western views of African indigenous spiritualities, believing that we are saved because we no longer engage in “idol worship”. Each group of individuals as well as tribe had their religious form over time in response to various life experiences and situations. All African Countries Are Poor. Many Western historians and scholars have a result perpetuated many of the ARRs myths. Now a diviner in hisDagara tradition, Somé wrote about the brainwashing he received at the seminary and the difficult journey finding his way back to his people’s traditions in Of Water and the Spirit. The online tests conducted during the course were instrumental in the assessment of what was learnt by the trainees. This anima also according to Taylor had the ability to live after death. The terms were also largely used in the colonial period. Myth: Slavery is a product of capitalism. Her opinion is backed by Chief Adelekan, a Yoruba diviner who at a talk in the Manchester Museum insisted that human sacrifices have nothing to do with his indigenous worship. (2010). Sunni Muslims make up approximatelyâ¦ Once again, thanks a lot, The paper was so involving but am happy it is done. Are our efforts to deal with the problem in accord with research findings? This lack of knowledge as well as understanding of essentials has led to burgeoning of myths on African Traditional Religions (ATR). Discussions about the modern “innovations” in African cultures and religious practices are almost nonexistent, so most of us never consider that the growth of Pentecostal churches is encouraging witchcraft related fears or that market forces are central to today’s beliefs in witchcraft. Similarly, few Africans had published accurate ATR representation books while the published have not been circulating according to reports by historians and scholars. The keepers of the age-old traditions are staking their claim for credibility despite the many challenges they face. The worst thing is that it uses the local people to enforce itself”. The resulting video (below) was uploaded on Youtube, thus exposing the ways in which indigenous faiths influence the way modern Africans worship. All Right Reserved. Therefore, the theory bundled all ATRs as one primitive appearance and nature thus, inferior to other religions including Christianity and Islam. If you have travelled overseas from the continent, there is a likelihood that â¦ Understanding African Traditional Religion. As âAmmaâ, among the Dogon people, or âOludamareâ among the Yoruba. African traditional religion by describing it with some racially motivated terminologies such as savagism, juju, fetishism, animism, magic, paganism, heathenism and ancestral worship. The traditional religions of Africa are human in the deepest sense, because they focus on people and their everyday problems. Traditional/Indigenous African religions are the traditional beliefs and practices of African people including the various traditional religions and customs. Among Catholics , sex of any kind is taboo for clergy - priests, nuns, and monks â but not for general believers. Letâs put these common myths to rest. Now this confession is enough to freak out a lot of Nigerians, who absurdly believe that Ifá, a deity of divination would demand a human sacrifice. This belief has a theological basis. However, they were generally forbidden from practicing their religion. of religion as concern with spiritual beings in discussing religious norms and ideals for women, and move to a more extensive consid-eration of ritual in my analysis of religious organization and practice. Many of mythical contention have also been in the effect that European missionaries brought about the knowledge of God to Africa as well as religion. While idolatry means worshipping false gods or unnatural beings, ATRs worship the objects mainly as symbols and emblems and not as means to themselves. Therefore, the ATRs are not certainly idolatrous. Lack of proper understanding of the embodiment led to creation of myths plethora in regards to ATRs. Back in the 18th century, Haiti was governed by â¦ It is believed that in rituals, people are regularly abducted and killed, their body parts used to create charms or “fetishes” that are said to bring riches to whoever bears them. I was curious to get a life path reading and to know which Orisha “ruled my head” after a friend had had a similar reading done. Many of the myths were however driven by superiority complex of the westerners in relevance to what they considered the ââburden of the white manââ to modernize Africans. 3 Leo Frobenius, The Voice of Africa, Vol. These so-called ritual killings have attained the status of urban legends in countries like Nigeria where the 10% of Nigerians who adhere to traditional beliefs have to keep their faith secret or risk being labelled as enablers of human sacrifice. Thanks a lot, Just wonna say thanks for attending to my assignment guyz. He named himself “Bonsam” which in Twi means “devil” thus knowingly poking fun at the continued demonisation of indigenous faith systems. As a result, it leads to increase in plethora of spirits (Johnson, 2004). Slavery and World History. What I do not tell them is that I consulted this babalawo over the Internet. For those who are open-minded and interested, there are a growing number of priests ordained in their respective spiritualities who are changing the face of indigenous African spiritualities on the continent and in the Diaspora. We have been in the writing business since 2009, and have served many students who have kept coming back and even referred others to us. Â Western scholars had in many cases referred ATR to as a form of idolatry worshipping only objects including rocks, sun, wood and trees. Lecturer is always on our head but was pleased with my paper. The most important thing is that in the new South Africa religion and spirituality are used to create greater understanding and harmony rather than to divide people as was done in the past. Thinking About Religion, 4. continue to have on the way Africans worship, traditional African religions still claimed the loyalty of majority of the population of sub-Saharan Africa, uncivilised, a necessary evil that had to be dealt with, and an inferior system that had to be done away with, every form of worship in Africa was of the devil, as a way to reinforce the notion that Africans and African civilisations were lesser, human sacrifices were part and parcel of pre-colonial faith systems, Discussions about the modern “innovations” in African cultures and religious practices, a life path reading and to know which Orisha “ruled my head”, Pentecostal priest for soliciting the help of his deities, offer the West African equivalent of Western zodiac signs, Childhood sex education reduces risky sexual behaviour: a Nigerian case study. Since ATRs are culturally dependent, the society played a very crucial role in propagating them. The mere existence of people like Kwaku Bonsam and websites that offer the West African equivalent of Western zodiac signs shows the ways in which indigenous priests are adapting their centuries-old traditions to the modern world and resisting the grand narrative of Christianity and Islam. Africa is A Country. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. Further ATR myths have also referred to the religions as heathen, paganism and magical. In a fascinating case, Kwaku Bonsam stormed into a church with a camera close by, to expose a Pentecostal priest for soliciting the help of his deities and keeping an idol on the church environs. Hence, it cannot be avoided in the interaction between Christianity and African Traditional Religion. In a world where everyone is looking to be rich and wealthy, indigenous African spiritualities are not exempt from being corrupted by those who would do anything to get rich. These words are still relevant today. Polytheism also offers the same rank to all worshipped gods in such a setting. Therefore, the society played a crucial unifying factor to the dreams and beliefs of a person (Johnson, 2004). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/347555444?accountid=1611 In this article, it is clear that antitrust benefits the business when they enhance regulation of free markets. Some religions (as well as cultures in general) consider various sexual practices taboo. In the book, Somé writes “religious colonialism tortures the soul. It is a true statement of fact â¦ Vodou began when African slaves brought their native traditions with them as they were forcefully transported to the new world. The paper was complete as fast. Even so, ATRs have a lot more deeper roots in a personalâs tribal setting thus making it hard to ease in implementation of other cultural and religious beliefs that are far eliminated from personal traditional beliefs (Johnson, 2004). 1, Hutchison, 1913, p.xll. Social Analysis Problem description How complete is our knowledge of the problem? Most of these stores are in the Midwest and West, where the company has a strong presence with expansion plans …, Continue reading “Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohlâs”, Report on CITI Training Summary Report on CITI Training Course It is always very important that learner evaluate the lessons learnt during a training course. (1976). That these rituals are done with the main aim of making money should hint at their true capitalist nature. Even so, while it can be true that some ATRs make reverence and reference to things, such as belief in sanctity of rivers and trees, it would be right to bundle all ATRs as animistic. A couple of examples include Zoroastrianism and Rastafarianism. The worshipped objects as a result, have meanings beyond themselves. Rather than viewing them as the complex systems they are, we have debased them to nothing but a series of sacrifices. Whether it is being wrongly labelled voodoo, juju or witchcraft, indigenous African faith systems tend to be associated with darkness, animal and human sacrifices, violence and general backwardness. These rituals, otherwise called witchcraft, are said to exist due to the superstitious nature of Africans, which arises from traditional beliefs. Yet religious colonialism on Africans is the main reason that most of us have come to view our own indigenous faith systems as epitomes of evil. This construct is false entirely since Mbiti contends that many people in Africa were already aware of existence of God and referred to him as Ngai, Mungu and Unkulunkulu among others (Johnson, 2004). Besides all religions have astonishment and orientation to the spirit world. Kwaku Bonsam regularly uses social media for divination purposes, and he also appears on television talk shows. Awolalu, J. O. Christianity denotes the existence of God in the trinity of God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. Indigenous faith systems were competition to those missionaries who wanted their religions to be established in Africa, thus they were essentially subjected to a smear campaign. The different African countries are made up of rural and urban regions. Additionally, in relevance to Christianity, God is spirit and should as a result be worshipped in truth and spirit. Here, Jacob K. Olupona, author of African Religions: A Very Short Introduction shares an interesting list of 15 facts on African religions. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs and festivals, include belief in an amount of higher and lower gods, sometimes including a supreme creator or force, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. The main areas covered in the test include the history of …, Continue reading “Report on CITI Training Sample Essay”. To each his own. Africa is a massive continent with diverse religious traditions, to the extent that within the same tradition there have been variations. Â In this case therefore, the argument is that missionaries did not bring God to Africa, instead God brought them to Africans. A person therefore had to be born within a people to undertake and comprehend the peopleâs religious practices. In keeping up with the generation of Pentecostal pastors in Ghana who use the media to deride Ghanaian traditional religion as devil worship in the continued colonial tradition, Kwaku Bonsam uses similar tactics to strike back. Diseases take millions of lives every year in Africa because of a lack â¦ Native American religions, religious beliefs and sacramental practices of the indigenous peoples of North and South America.Until the 1950s it was commonly assumed that the religions of the surviving Native Americans were little more than curious anachronisms, dying remnants of humankindâs childhood.These traditions lacked sacred texts and fixed doctrines or moral codes and were â¦ There are several misconceptions concerning various religions and people of faith. Commercialized by E.B Taylor, an English anthropologist and propagated by other scholars, the first myth considers ATR as animism. The ATR ascription as primitive in regards to Western racial pride set their civilized culture while that of Africans was rudimentary and simple because (Africans) had not gotten used to the Western way of life (Awolalu, 1976, p. 6). Africans Speak African. The three main religious traditionsâAfrican traditional religion, Christianity, and Islamâconstitute the triple religious heritage of the African continent. If you are looking for affordable, high quality & non-plagiarized papers, click on the BUTTON below to place your ORDER. When Ludwig got to Presenting local beliefs as nothing but backwater superstitions was part and parcel of how Christian missionaries operated in their bid to bring their religion and Western civilisation to the dark continent. Size Defining characteristics Distribution What theory or theories of human behavior are explicit or, more likely, implicit …, Continue reading “Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment”, Challenges Facing Financial Managers Devlin, A. wonna thank you, I expected perfection in terms of grammar and I am happy. Okay, so it is a little weird starting out a list with âOther,â but bear with meâI am starting out with the less popular religions and working up toward the most widespread faiths. 2 E. B. Idowu, African Traditional Religion, S.C.M., 1973, p.87. The represented divinities by the objects act as Supreme Beingâs representative and who was not represented by any object in the ATR. ATR on the other hand also has divinities that do not match Supreme Being in file and rank. Most missionaries strongly believed that they were saving Africans from satanic oppression and ignorance, an idea that most post-colonial Africans have internalised. 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